Impact of Marine Ecosystem Disturbances on Sources of Income in Ibeno Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Ettemfon Silas Udom
Iniodu Ukpong
Inibehe Ukpong
Anietie Udom


This research investigated the impact of marine ecosystem disturbances on the sources of income of the people in Ibeno Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The main objective was to determine the influence of environmental disturbances on the sources of income of people in the oil producing coastal areas of Ibeno. The study took a period of two years and involved collection of water samples from twelve locations in six coastal communities in Ibeno for laboratory analysis, and administration of 410 questionnaires out of which 400 were used to extract data on sources of income (occupation) and environmental disturbances. Multiple regression analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were employed to determine the relationship between sources of income (Y) and environmental disturbances (Xs). In the final analysis, the water physiochemical property test shows a relatively normal nutrients loading in the area but act in synergy with others in impacting on the environment. Seven elements of environmental disturbances were identified; erosion, acid-rain, deforestation, tidal actions, oil pollution, coastal flooding and rise in sea level. The study equally revealed that fishing was the major source of income of the coastal people and was mostly affected. In the regression analysis, the environmental disturbances and the sources of income (occupation) relate significantly at 0.5% probability test. The study concluded that the synergic effect of acid-rain due to oil activities, run-off sediments deposited in the river, direct and accidental discharge of crude into the river, coastal flooding/tidal actions that spread the pollutants along the coast and mangrove removal, destroyed fishes, reduced catch and cause serious decline in the income base of the people in Ibeno. Thus, it is important to promote environmental protection, conservation and sustainable harvesting to remedy the situation.

Marine ecosystem, environmental disturbances, coastal areas, job opportunities.

Article Details

How to Cite
Udom, E. S., Ukpong, I., Ukpong, I., & Udom, A. (2019). Impact of Marine Ecosystem Disturbances on Sources of Income in Ibeno Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, 10(3), 1-8.
Original Research Article


Ukpong IG. Nature under Siege: Portrait of Environmental Crisis in the Niger Delta. Author House, 1663 Liberty Drive, Bloomington. 2012;80-100.

Ikurekong EE, Udofia EP. Acid Deposit and Environmental Quality Control of the Nigeria Oil Producing Community. In: Ukpong IE. (Eds). Geography and the Nigerian Environment. Afangide and Sons. 1998;184-190.

Myers N. The world’s Forest: Problems and Potentials. Environmental Conservation. Washington, D.C: Island Press.1996;23(2):156–168.

Bhau GV, Ukpong IG. Perceptions of Environmental Footprints of Oil and Gas Extraction in Southern Nigeria. AGU International of Research in Social Sciences & Humanities (AGUIJRSSH), 2018;6:198-208.

Ashton-Jone N, Susi A, Oronto D. The Human Ecosystem of the Niger Delta: An Era Handbook. Benin City. 1998;60–96.

Ukpong IG, Inyeinyang MM, Ominikari AG. Socioeconomic disparity and poverty profiles in oil producing rural areas in Nigeria, Nigeria. Journal of Asian Rural Studies. 2019;3(2):145-157.

National Population Commission. Population and housing census strategy and implementation plan, Abuja. 2005; 2– 4.

Uzoagulu AE. Practical guide to writing project reports in tertiary institutions. John Jecob Ltd. 1 Okpara Avenue, Enugu. 1998;62–68.

APHA, AWWA and WPCF. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.15th ed. APHA, Washington, DC; 1985.

Ademoroti CA. Environmental chemistry and toxicology. Foluddex Press, Ibadan. Oyo State. 1996;56.

Joseph L. Regression Modelling and Other Methods to Control Confounding. Occup. Environ. Med. Journal. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Yale University 2003;62:500-506.

Udofia EP. Foundamentals of social science statistics. Immaculate Publication Ltd. 2 Aku Street. Ogui New Layout, Enugu, Nigeria. 2003;324–334.

Botkin B, Keller EA. Environmental Science: The Earth as a Living Planet. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. 1997;157–169.

Agunwamba JC. Waste Engineering and Management Tools. Immaculate Publication Ltd. Enugu. 2001;150–205.

Adinna EN. Environmental Hazard and Management. Snaap Press Ltd. Independent Layout, Enugu. 2001;145– 156.

Nebel BJ, Wright RT. Essentials of Environmental Science: Study guide material. Pearson Custom Publishing Company, Boston. 2000;26–43.

Ekpo HA, Uwatt BU. Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria: Poverty Profile and Economic Transformation. Foundation for Economic Research and Training, Uyo. 2005;49–70.

Nigerian Conservation Foundation (NCF). Documentation of environmental degradation in fifteen communities in Akwa Ibom State. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) South South Zonal Office, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, 2000;33-35.